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Scope and Collaborations

Molecular biophysics tools may be of use to scientists or teachers working on a variety of genes including cancer, inherited deafness and vision loss related proteins. Shown below is an overview of protein homology models that have been studied and refined using both local and global optimization algorithms. Click on the images to enhance the size.

Inherited Deafness

Shown below are a refined GJB2 Hexamer and a portion of the GIPC3 protein. The GIPC3 structure is displayed from residues 108 to 196. Structures of other proteins related to inherited deafness can be found online at

GJB2Hexamer GIPC3

Holden Comprehensive Cancer Genes

The refining algorithms used often result in lengthening of secondary structure in proteins and increased stability. A small portion of the extracellular domain of Kit is shown below with some secondary structured highlighted in boxes. The images demonstrate an increase in secondary structure. Structures of additional Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center proteins can be found online at

Original Kit Refined Kit

Inherited Vision Loss

The vision variation related proteins MAK and PAX6 are shown below. MAK is diplayed from residue one to 284, and PAX6 is displayed in complex with DNA. A database of the original and refined models of vision variation proteins can be found online at